95 – 108 mmol
Chloride is the major anion of the extracellular fluid. Its precise function in the body is not well understood, but it is involved in maintaining osmotic pressure, hydration, and ionic neutrality. The concentration in serum or plasma is measured with an ion selective electrode.
Hyperchloremia may occur with excessive loss of bicarbonate due to diarrhea, renal tubular acidosis, mineralocorticoid deficiency, compensated respiratory alkalosis, and excessive dietary intake. Hyperchloremia frequently accompanies hypernatremia. Mild elevations may be seen in primary hyperparathyroidism.
Hypochloremia may result from: loss of hydrochloric acid from vomiting , excessive mineralcorticoid production, and salt losing renal disease such as pyelonephritis. Low serum chloride levels are also seen in conditions associated with high serum bicarbonate concentrations such as compensated respiratory acidosis or metabolic alkalosis.
Chloride measurements are useful when interpreting difficult acid base disorders. Hyperchloremia often indicates acidosis (primary or compensatory), whereas hypochloremia indicates primary or compensatory alkalosis.
Can be added on to an existing request up to 4 days following sample receiptSpecimen Labelling Procedure