24h urine/random urine
Random urines will be accepted in cases where 24 hour collections are difficult.
The protein concentration (g/L) will be divided by the creatinine concentration (mmol/L) and multiplied by 1,000 to give a “protein/creatinine index” reference range (0 – 12.5 mg/mmol).
0.01 – 0.14 g/24 h
Causes include the whole differential diagnosis of renal disease.
Glomerular proteinuria is by far the most common and serious type.
The protein is predominantly albumin and when daily output >3 g/day, nephrotic syndrome develops comprising oedema, albuminuria and hypoalbuminaemia. Serum lipids become elevated.
In tubular proteinuria, electrophoresis shows a non-selective pattern with bands representing the wide range of normal serum proteins normally reabsorbed by the tubules. Causes include drugs, inherited disease (e.g. Wilson’s disease), autoimmune disease (e.g. SLE) or chronic infection.
Proteinuria of >1.0 g/day requires renal investigation including consideration of renal biopsy.
Benign and non-renal proteinuria
Can be added on to an existing request up to 4 days following sample receiptSpecimen Labelling Procedure